Despite its success in treating melanoma and hematological malignancies, adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has had only limited effects in solid tumors. This is due in part to a lack of specific antigen targets, poor trafficking and infiltration, and immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we combined ACT with oncolytic virus vaccines (OVVs) to drive expansion and tumor infiltration of transferred antigen-specific T cells and demonstrated that the combination is highly potent for the eradication of established solid tumors. Consistent with other successful immunotherapies, this approach elicited severe autoimmune consequences when the antigen targeted was a self-protein. However, modulation of IFN-α/-β signaling, either by functional blockade or rational selection of an OVV backbone, ameliorated autoimmune side effects without compromising antitumor efficacy. Our study uncovers a pathogenic role for IFN-α/-β in facilitating autoimmune toxicity during cancer immunotherapy and presents a safe and powerful combinatorial regimen with immediate translational applications.
Scott R. Walsh, Donald Bastin, Lan Chen, Andrew Nguyen, Christopher J. Storbeck, Charles Lefebvre, David Stojdl, Jonathan L. Bramson, John C. Bell, Yonghong Wan
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disorder characterized by accelerated cardiovascular disease with extensive fibrosis. It is caused by a mutation in LMNA leading to expression of truncated prelamin A (progerin) in the nucleus. To investigate the contribution of the endothelium to cardiovascular HGPS pathology, we generated an endothelium-specific HGPS mouse model with selective endothelial progerin expression. Transgenic mice develop interstitial myocardial and perivascular fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy associated with diastolic dysfunction and premature death. Endothelial cells show impaired shear stress response and reduced levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and NO. On the molecular level, progerin impairs nucleocytoskeletal coupling in endothelial cells through changes in mechanoresponsive components at the nuclear envelope, increased F-actin/G-actin ratios, and deregulation of mechanoresponsive myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTFA). MRTFA binds to the Nos3 promoter and reduces eNOS expression, thereby mediating a profibrotic paracrine response in fibroblasts. MRTFA inhibition rescues eNOS levels and ameliorates the profibrotic effect of endothelial cells in vitro. Although this murine model lacks the key anatomical feature of vascular smooth muscle cell loss seen in HGPS patients, our data show that progerin-induced impairment of mechanosignaling in endothelial cells contributes to excessive fibrosis and cardiovascular disease in HGPS patients.
Selma Osmanagic-Myers, Attila Kiss, Christina Manakanatas, Ouafa Hamza, Franziska Sedlmayer, Petra L. Szabo, Irmgard Fischer, Petra Fichtinger, Bruno K. Podesser, Maria Eriksson, Roland Foisner
Innate immune activation contributes to the transition from nonalcoholic fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Stimulator of IFN genes (STING, also referred to Tmem173) is a universal receptor that recognizes released DNA and triggers innate immune activation. In this work, we investigated the role of STING in the progression of NASH in mice. Both methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) were used to induce NASH in mice. Strikingly, STING deficiency attenuated steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation in livers in both murine models of NASH. Additionally, STING deficiency increased fasting glucose levels in mice independently of insulin, but mitigated HFD-induced insulin resistance and weight gain and reduced levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL in serum; it also enhanced levels of HDL. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from hepatocytes of HFD-fed mice induced TNF-α and IL-6 expression in cultured Kupffer cells (KCs), which was attenuated by STING deficiency or pretreatment with BAY11-7082 (an NF-κB inhibitor). Finally, chronic exposure to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA, a STING agonist) led to hepatic steatosis and inflammation in WT mice, but not in STING-deficient mice. We proposed that STING functions as an mtDNA sensor in the KCs of liver under lipid overload and induces NF-κB–dependent inflammation in NASH.
Yongsheng Yu, Yu Liu, Weishuai An, Jingwen Song, Yuefan Zhang, Xianxian Zhao
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a principal cause of acute and chronic failure of lung allografts. However, mechanisms mediating this oftentimes fatal complication are poorly understood. Here, we show that Foxp3+ T cells formed aggregates in rejection-free human lung grafts and accumulated within induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of tolerant mouse lungs. Using a retransplantation model, we show that selective depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in the generation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and AMR, which was associated with complement deposition and destruction of airway epithelium. AMR was dependent on graft infiltration by B and T cells. Depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in prolonged interactions between B and CD4+ T cells within transplanted lungs, which was dependent on CXCR5-CXCL13. Blockade of CXCL13 as well as inhibition of the CD40 ligand and the ICOS ligand suppressed DSA production and prevented AMR. Thus, we have shown that regulatory Foxp3+ T cells residing within BALT of tolerant pulmonary allografts function to suppress B cell activation, a finding that challenges the prevailing view that regulation of humoral responses occurs peripherally. As pulmonary AMR is largely refractory to current immunosuppression, our findings provide a platform for developing therapies that target local immune responses.
Wenjun Li, Jason M. Gauthier, Ryuji Higashikubo, Hsi-Min Hsiao, Satona Tanaka, Linh Vuong, Jon H. Ritter, Alice Y. Tong, Brian W. Wong, Ramsey R. Hachem, Varun Puri, Ankit Bharat, Alexander S. Krupnick, Chyi S. Hsieh, William M. Baldwin III, Francine L. Kelly, Scott M. Palmer, Andrew E. Gelman, Daniel Kreisel
Prostate cancer (PC) progressed to castration resistance (CRPC) is a fatal disease. CRPC tumors develop resistance to new-generation antiandrogen enzalutamide through lineage plasticity, characterized by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a basal-like phenotype. FOXA1 is a transcription factor essential for epithelial lineage differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that FOXA1 loss leads to remarkable upregulation of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3), which encodes a ligand of the TGF-β pathway. Mechanistically, this is due to genomic occupancy of FOXA1 on an upstream enhancer of the TGFB3 gene to directly inhibit its transcription. Functionally, FOXA1 downregulation induces TGF-β signaling, EMT, and cell motility, which is effectively blocked by the TGF-β receptor I inhibitor galunisertib (LY2157299). Tissue microarray analysis confirmed reduced levels of FOXA1 protein and a concordant increase in TGF-β signaling, indicated by SMAD2 phosphorylation, in CRPC as compared with primary tumors. Importantly, combinatorial LY2157299 treatment sensitized PC cells to enzalutamide, leading to synergistic effects in inhibiting cell invasion in vitro and xenograft CRPC tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Therefore, our study establishes FOXA1 as an important regulator of lineage plasticity mediated in part by TGF-β signaling, and supports a novel therapeutic strategy to control lineage switching and potentially extend clinical response to antiandrogen therapies.
Bing Song, Su-Hong Park, Jonathan C. Zhao, Ka-wing Fong, Shangze Li, Yongik Lee, Yeqing A. Yang, Subhasree Sridhar, Xiaodong Lu, Sarki A. Abdulkadir, Robert L. Vessella, Colm Morrissey, Timothy M. Kuzel, William Catalona, Ximing Yang, Jindan Yu
Current thalassemia gene therapy protocols require the collection of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), in vitro culture, lentivirus vector transduction, and retransplantation into myeloablated patients. Because of cost and technical complexity, it is unlikely that such protocols will be applicable in developing countries, where the greatest demand for a β-thalassemia therapy lies. We have developed a simple in vivo HSPC gene therapy approach that involves HSPC mobilization and an intravenous injection of integrating HDAd5/35++ vectors. Transduced HSPCs homed back to the bone marrow, where they persisted long-term. HDAd5/35++ vectors for in vivo gene therapy of thalassemia had a unique capsid that targeted primitive HSPCs through human CD46, a relatively safe SB100X transposase–based integration machinery, a micro-LCR–driven γ-globin gene, and an MGMT(P140K) system that allowed for increasing the therapeutic effect by short-term treatment with low-dose O6-benzylguanine plus bis-chloroethylnitrosourea. We showed in “healthy” human CD46–transgenic mice and in a mouse model of thalassemia intermedia that our in vivo approach resulted in stable γ-globin expression in the majority of circulating red blood cells. The high marking frequency was maintained in secondary recipients. In the thalassemia model, a near-complete phenotypic correction was achieved. The treatment was well tolerated. This cost-efficient and “portable” approach could permit a broader clinical application of thalassemia gene therapy.
Hongjie Wang, Aphrodite Georgakopoulou, Nikoletta Psatha, Chang Li, Chrysi Capsali, Himanshu Bhusan Samal, Achilles Anagnostopoulos, Anja Ehrhardt, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Thalia Papayannopoulou, Evangelia Yannaki, André Lieber
X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) are caused by loss-of-function and hypomorphic IKBKG (also known as NEMO) mutations, respectively. We describe a European mother with mild IP and a Japanese mother without IP, whose 3 boys with EDA-ID died from ID. We identify the same private variant in an intron of IKBKG, IVS4+866 C>T, which was inherited from and occurred de novo in the European mother and Japanese mother, respectively. This mutation creates a new splicing donor site, giving rise to a 44-nucleotide pseudoexon (PE) generating a frameshift. Its leakiness accounts for NF-κB activation being impaired but not abolished in the boys’ cells. However, aberrant splicing rates differ between cell types, with WT NEMO mRNA and protein levels ranging from barely detectable in leukocytes to residual amounts in induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPSC-derived) macrophages, and higher levels in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neuronal precursor cells. Finally, SRSF6 binds to the PE, facilitating its inclusion. Moreover, SRSF6 knockdown or CLK inhibition restores WT NEMO expression and function in mutant cells. A recurrent deep intronic splicing mutation in IKBKG underlies a purely quantitative NEMO defect in males that is most severe in leukocytes and can be rescued by the inhibition of SRSF6 or CLK.
Bertrand Boisson, Yoshitaka Honda, Masahiko Ajiro, Jacinta Bustamante, Matthieu Bendavid, Andrew R. Gennery, Yuri Kawasaki, Jose Ichishima, Mitsujiro Osawa, Hiroshi Nihira, Takeshi Shiba, Takayuki Tanaka, Maya Chrabieh, Benedetta Bigio, Hong Hur, Yuval Itan, Yupu Liang, Satoshi Okada, Kazushi Izawa, Ryuta Nishikomori, Osamu Ohara, Toshio Heike, Laurent Abel, Anne Puel, Megumu K. Saito, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Takahiro Yasumi
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a fatal disease characterized by premature aging in which young children fail to thrive and adolescents die from myocardial infarction or stroke. The pathogenesis of HGPS is studied intensively because the mechanisms of premature aging may lead to a better understanding of normal aging. In this issue of the JCI, Osmanagic-Myers and colleagues identify the cellular mechanisms that lead to vascular abnormalities and death in children with HGPS.
Charles J. Lowenstein, J. Allen Bennett
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has emerged as an important cause of lung graft failure. In the current issue of the JCI, a study by Li et al. identifies a critical role of Foxp3+ T cells residing within lung allografts in the regulation of AMR. This study not only provides new insights into the nature of lung allografts as a primary site where T and B cell priming and immune regulation can occur, but also introduces the mouse orthotopic lung transplant as a model for studying the immunobiology of AMR. Because AMR can be so difficult to effectively treat in lung transplant recipients, the development of an animal model is a major advance in understanding the immunopathogenesis of AMR.
Elizabeth A. Lendermon, John F. McDyer
Mast cells (MCs) are immune sentinels but whether they also function as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) remains elusive. Using mouse models of MC-deficiency, we report MC-dependent recruitment and activation of multiple T cell subsets to the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs) during dengue virus (DENV) infection. Newly-recruited and locally-proliferating γδT cells were the first responding T cell subset to MC-driven inflammation and their production of IFN-γ was MC-dependent. MC-γδ T cell conjugates were observed consistently in infected peripheral tissues, suggesting a new role for MCs as non-conventional APCs for γδT cells. MC-dependent γδT cell activation and proliferation during DENV infection required TCR signaling and the non-conventional antigen presentation molecule EPCR on MCs. γδT cells, not previously implicated in DENV host defense, killed infected target dendritic cells and contributed to clearance of DENV in vivo. We believe immune synapse formation between MCs and γδT cells is a novel mechanism to induce specific and protective immunity at sites of viral infection.
Chinmay Kumar Mantri, Ashley L. St. John
Joint pain is the defining symptom of osteoarthritis (OA) but its origin and mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated an unprecedented role of osteoclast-initiated subchondral bone remodeling in sensory innervation for OA pain. We show that osteoclasts secrete NETRIN1 to induce sensory nerve axonal growth in subchondral bone. Reduction of osteoclast formation by knockout of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (Rankl) in osteocytes inhibited the growth of sensory nerves into subchondral bone, DRG neuron hyperexcitability, and behavioral measures of pain hypersensitivity in OA mice. Moreover, we demonstrated a possible role for NETRIN1 secreted by osteoclasts during aberrant subchondral bone remodeling in inducing sensory innervation and OA pain through its receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer). Importantly, knockout of Netrin1 in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive osteoclasts or knockdown of Dcc reduces OA pain behavior. In particular, inhibition of osteoclast activity by alendronate modifies aberrant subchondral bone remodeling and reduces innervation and pain behavior at the early stage of OA. These results suggest that intervention of the axonal guidance molecules (e.g. NETRIN1) derived from aberrant subchondral bone remodeling may have therapeutic potential for OA pain.
Shouan Zhu, Jianxi Zhu, Gehua Zhen, Yihe Hu, Senbo An, Yusheng Li, Qin Zheng, Zhiyong Chen, Ya Yang, Mei Wan, Richard Leroy Skolasky, Yong Cao, Tianding Wu, Bo Gao, Mi Yang, Manman Gao, Julia Kuliwaba, Shuangfei Ni, Lei Wang, Chuanlong Wu, David Findlay, Holger K. Eltzschig, Hong Wei Ouyang, Janet Crane, Feng-Quan Zhou, Yun Guan, Xinzhong Dong, Xu Cao
Both natural influenza infection and current seasonal influenza vaccines primarily induce neutralising antibody responses against highly diverse epitopes within the “head” of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein. There is increasing interest on redirecting immunity towards the more conserved HA-stem or stalk as a means to broaden protective antibody responses. Here we examined HA-stem-specific B cell and T-follicular helper (Tfh) cell responses in the context of influenza infection and immunisation in mouse and monkey models. We found that during infection the stem domain was immunologically subdominant to the head in terms of serum antibody production and antigen-specific B and Tfh responses. Similarly, we found HA-stem immunogens were poorly immunogenic compared to the full-length HA with abolished sialic acid binding activity, with limiting Tfh elicitation a potential constraint to the induction or boosting of anti-stem immunity by vaccination. Finally, we confirm that currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccines can boost pre-existing memory responses against the HA-stem in humans. An increased understanding of the immune dynamics surrounding the HA-stem is essential to inform the design of next-generation influenza vaccines for broad and durable protection.
Hyon-Xhi Tan, Sinthujan Jegaskanda, Jennifer A. Juno, Robyn Esterbauer, Julius Wong, Hannah G. Kelly, Yi Liu, Danielle Tilmanis, Aeron C. Hurt, Jonathan W. Yewdell, Stephen J. Kent, Adam K. Wheatley
ARHGEF1 is a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor expressed in hematopoietic cells. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify compound heterozygous mutations in ARHGEF1, resulting in the loss of ARHGEF1 protein expression in two primary-antibody-deficient siblings presenting with recurrent severe respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Both ARHGEF1-deficient patients showed an abnormal B cell immunophenotype, with a deficiency in marginal-zone and memory B cells and an increased frequency of transitional B cells. Furthermore, the patients’ blood contained immature myeloid cells. Analysis of a mediastinal lymph node from one patient highlighted the small size of the germinal centres and an abnormally high plasma cell content. On the molecular level, T and B lymphocytes from both patients displayed low RhoA activity and low steady-state actin polymerization (even after stimulation of lysophospholipid receptors). As a consequence of disturbed regulation of the RhoA downstream target ROCK, the patients’ lymphocytes failed to efficiently restrain AKT phosphorylation. Enforced ARHGEF1 expression or drug-induced activation of RhoA in patients’ cells corrected the impaired actin polymerization and AKT regulation. Our results indicate that ARHGEF1 activity in human lymphocytes is involved in controlling actin cytoskeleton dynamics, restraining PI3K/AKT signalling, and confining B lymphocytes and myelocytes within their dedicated functional environment.
Amine Bouafia, Sébastien Lofek, Julie Bruneau, Loïc Chentout, Hicham Lamrini, Amélie Trinquand, Marie-Céline Deau, Lucie Heurtier, Véronique Meignin, Capucine Picard, Elizabeth Macintyre, Olivier Alibeu, Marc Bras, Thierry Jo Molina, Marina Cavazzana, Isabelle André-Schmutz, Anne Durandy, Alain Fischer, Eric Oksenhendler, Sven Kracker
Energy stress, such as ischemia, induces mitochondrial damage and death in the heart. Degradation of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy is essential for the maintenance of healthy mitochondria and survival. Here we show that mitophagy during myocardial ischemia was mediated predominantly through autophagy characterized by Rab9-associated autophagosomes, rather than the well-characterized form of autophagy that is dependent upon the Atg-conjugation system and LC3. This form of mitophagy played an essential role in protecting the heart against ischemia and was mediated by a protein complex consisting of Ulk1, Rab9, Rip1 and Drp1. This complex allowed recruitment of trans-Golgi membranes associated with Rab9 to damaged mitochondria through Ser179 phosphorylation of Rab9 by Ulk1 and Ser616 phosphorylation of Drp1 by Rip1. Knock-in of Rab9 (S179A) abolished mitophagy and exacerbated injury in response to myocardial ischemia without affecting conventional autophagy. Mitophagy mediated through the Ulk1-Rab9-Rip1-Drp1 pathway protected the heart against ischemia by maintaining healthy mitochondria.
Toshiro Saito, Jihoon Nah, Shin-ichi Oka, Risa Mukai, Yoshiya Monden, Yusuhiro Maejima, Yoshiyuki Ikeda, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Tong Liu, Hong Li, Erdene Baljinnyam, Diego Fraidenraich, Luke Fritzky, Peiyong Zhai, Shizuko Ichinose, Mitsuaki Isobe, Chiao-Po Hsu, Mondira Kundu, Junichi Sadoshima
In this issue of the JCI, Bodduluri et al. demonstrate that characterizing airway branching complexity and remodeling using fractal dimensions can provide prognostic information that associates closely with measurements of COPD progression, including lung function decline and mortality. This approach may provide important clinical insights into the mechanisms underlying progression of COPD and other respiratory diseases. This issue’s cover illustrates the branching airways of a smoker without airflow obstruction.
JCI This Month is a digest of the research, reviews, and other features published each month.
Mitochondria transform nutrients and oxygen into chemical energy that powers a multitude of cellular functions. While mitochondrial aerobic glycolysis generates the majority of a cell’s ATP, its byproducts also have wide-ranging influences on cellular health and longevity. This review series, edited by Dr. Michael Sack, focuses on the many contributions of mitochondria to disease and aging. The reviews highlight evidence linking altered mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress to a range of pathophysiological phenomena: inflammation and immune dysfunction, heart failure, cancer development, metabolic disease, and more. In many diseases and conditions, mitochondrial dysfunction is considered the tipping point toward pathological progression. However, as these reviews discuss, therapeutic targeting of mitochondria may be a powerful strategy to subvert disease and aging processes.