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Intralesional therapy with oncolytic viruses (OVs) leads to the activation of local and systemic immune pathways, which may present targets for further combinatorial therapies. Here, we used human tumor histocultures as well as syngeneic tumor models treated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) to identify a range of immune targets upregulated with OV treatment. Despite tumor infiltration of effector T lymphocytes in response to NDV, there was ongoing inhibition through programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), acting as a mechanism of early and late adaptive immune resistance to the type I IFN response and T cell infiltration, respectively. Systemic therapeutic targeting of programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) or PD-L1 in combination with intratumoral NDV resulted in the rejection of both treated and distant tumors. These findings have implications for the timing of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in conjunction with OV therapy and highlight the importance of understanding the adaptive mechanisms of immune resistance to specific OVs for the rational design of combinatorial approaches using these agents.
Dmitriy Zamarin, Jacob M. Ricca, Svetlana Sadekova, Anton Oseledchyk, Ying Yu, Wendy M. Blumenschein, Jerelyn Wong, Mathieu Gigoux, Taha Merghoub, Jedd D. Wolchok
Total views: 3616
Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, obesity-mediated insulin resistance correlates with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages and inflammation. However, the causal relationship of these events is unclear. Here, we report that obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice precedes macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue. Using a mouse model that combines genetically induced, adipose-specific insulin resistance (mTORC2-knockout) and diet-induced obesity, we found that insulin resistance causes local accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages. Mechanistically, insulin resistance in adipocytes results in production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), which recruits monocytes and activates proinflammatory macrophages. Finally, insulin resistance (high homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) correlated with reduced insulin/mTORC2 signaling and elevated MCP1 production in visceral adipose tissue from obese human subjects. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in adipose tissue leads to inflammation rather than vice versa.
Mitsugu Shimobayashi, Verena Albert, Bettina Woelnerhanssen, Irina C. Frei, Diana Weissenberger, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Nicolas Clement, Suzette Moes, Marco Colombi, Jerome A. Meier, Marta M. Swierczynska, Paul Jenö, Christoph Beglinger, Ralph Peterli, Michael N. Hall
Total views: 3206
Breast cancer metastasis remains a clinical challenge, even within a single patient across multiple sites of the disease. Genome-wide comparisons of both the DNA and gene expression of primary tumors and metastases in multiple patients could help elucidate the underlying mechanisms that cause breast cancer metastasis. To address this issue, we performed DNA exome and RNA sequencing of matched primary tumors and multiple metastases from 16 patients, totaling 83 distinct specimens. We identified tumor-specific drivers by integrating known protein-protein network information with RNA expression and somatic DNA alterations and found that genetic drivers were predominantly established in the primary tumor and maintained through metastatic spreading. In addition, our analyses revealed that most genetic drivers were DNA copy number changes, the TP53 mutation was a recurrent founding mutation regardless of subtype, and that multiclonal seeding of metastases was frequent and occurred in multiple subtypes. Genetic drivers unique to metastasis were identified as somatic mutations in the estrogen and androgen receptor genes. These results highlight the complexity of metastatic spreading, be it monoclonal or multiclonal, and suggest that most metastatic drivers are established in the primary tumor, despite the substantial heterogeneity seen in the metastases.
Marni B. Siegel, Xiaping He, Katherine A. Hoadley, Alan Hoyle, Julia B. Pearce, Amy L. Garrett, Sunil Kumar, Vincent J. Moylan, Claudia M. Brady, Amanda E.D. Van Swearingen, David Marron, Gaorav P. Gupta, Leigh B. Thorne, Niamh Kieran, Chad Livasy, Elaine R. Mardis, Joel S. Parker, Mengjie Chen, Carey K. Anders, Lisa A. Carey, Charles M. Perou
Total views: 2644
Anticancer vaccination is a promising approach to increase the efficacy of cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint blockade therapies. However, the landmark FDA registration trial for anti–CTLA-4 therapy (ipilimumab) revealed a complete lack of benefit of adding vaccination with gp100 peptide formulated in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA). Here, using a mouse model of melanoma, we found that gp100 vaccination induced gp100-specific effector T cells (Teffs), which dominantly forced trafficking of anti–CTLA-4–induced, non-gp100–specific Teffs away from the tumor, reducing tumor control. The inflamed vaccination site subsequently also sequestered and destroyed anti–CTLA-4–induced Teffs with specificities for tumor antigens other than gp100, reducing the antitumor efficacy of anti–CTLA-4 therapy. Mechanistically, Teffs at the vaccination site recruited inflammatory monocytes, which in turn attracted additional Teffs in a vicious cycle mediated by IFN-γ, CXCR3, ICAM-1, and CCL2, dependent on IFA formulation. In contrast, nonpersistent vaccine formulations based on dendritic cells, viral vectors, or water-soluble peptides potently synergized with checkpoint blockade of both CTLA-4 and PD-L1 and induced complete tumor regression, including in settings of primary resistance to dual checkpoint blockade. We conclude that cancer vaccine formulation can dominantly determine synergy, or lack thereof, with CTLA-4 and PD-L1 checkpoint blockade therapy for cancer.
Yared Hailemichael, Amber Woods, Tihui Fu, Qiuming He, Michael C. Nielsen, Farah Hasan, Jason Roszik, Zhilan Xiao, Christina Vianden, Hiep Khong, Manisha Singh, Meenu Sharma, Faisal Faak, Derek Moore, Zhimin Dai, Scott M. Anthony, Kimberly S. Schluns, Padmanee Sharma, Victor H. Engelhard, Willem W. Overwijk
Total views: 2535
Intake of hemoglobin by the hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 leads to a distinct alternative non–foam cell antiinflammatory macrophage phenotype that was previously considered atheroprotective. Here, we reveal an unexpected but important pathogenic role for these macrophages in atherosclerosis. Using human atherosclerotic samples, cultured cells, and a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of intraplaque hemorrhage on macrophage function with respect to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inflammation, and plaque progression. In human atherosclerotic lesions, CD163+ macrophages were associated with plaque progression, microvascularity, and a high level of HIF1α and VEGF-A expression. We observed irregular vascular endothelial cadherin in intraplaque microvessels surrounded by CD163+ macrophages. Within these cells, activation of HIF1α via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases promoted VEGF-mediated increases in intraplaque angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and inflammatory cell recruitment. CD163+ macrophages increased intraplaque endothelial VCAM expression and plaque inflammation. Subjects with homozygous minor alleles of the SNP rs7136716 had elevated microvessel density, increased expression of CD163 in ruptured coronary plaques, and a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in population cohorts. Thus, our findings highlight a nonlipid-driven mechanism by which alternative macrophages promote plaque angiogenesis, leakiness, inflammation, and progression via the CD163/HIF1α/VEGF-A pathway.
Liang Guo, Hirokuni Akahori, Emanuel Harari, Samantha L. Smith, Rohini Polavarapu, Vinit Karmali, Fumiyuki Otsuka, Rachel L. Gannon, Ryan E. Braumann, Megan H. Dickinson, Anuj Gupta, Audrey L. Jenkins, Michael J. Lipinski, Johoon Kim, Peter Chhour, Paul S. de Vries, Hiroyuki Jinnouchi, Robert Kutys, Hiroyoshi Mori, Matthew D. Kutyna, Sho Torii, Atsushi Sakamoto, Cheol Ung Choi, Qi Cheng, Megan L. Grove, Mariem A. Sawan, Yin Zhang, Yihai Cao, Frank D. Kolodgie, David P. Cormode, Dan E. Arking, Eric Boerwinkle, Alanna C. Morrison, Jeanette Erdmann, Nona Sotoodehnia, Renu Virmani, Aloke V. Finn
Total views: 2317
Metastatic breast cancers are still incurable. Characterizing the evolutionary landscape of these cancers, including the role of metastatic axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) in seeding distant organ metastasis, can provide a rational basis for effective treatments. Here, we have described the genomic analyses of the primary tumors and metastatic lesions from 99 samples obtained from 20 patients with breast cancer. Our evolutionary analyses revealed diverse spreading and seeding patterns that govern tumor progression. Although linear evolution to successive metastatic sites was common, parallel evolution from the primary tumor to multiple distant sites was also evident. Metastatic spreading was frequently coupled with polyclonal seeding, in which multiple metastatic subclones originated from the primary tumor and/or other distant metastases. Synchronous ALN metastasis, a well-established prognosticator of breast cancer, was not involved in seeding the distant metastasis, suggesting a hematogenous route for cancer dissemination. Clonal evolution coincided frequently with emerging driver alterations and evolving mutational processes, notably an increase in apolipoprotein B mRNA–editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like–associated (APOBEC-associated) mutagenesis. Our data provide genomic evidence for a role of ALN metastasis in seeding distant organ metastasis and elucidate the evolving mutational landscape during cancer progression.
Ikram Ullah, Govindasamy-Muralidharan Karthik, Amjad Alkodsi, Una Kjällquist, Gustav Stålhammar, John Lövrot, Nelson-Fuentes Martinez, Jens Lagergren, Sampsa Hautaniemi, Johan Hartman, Jonas Bergh
Total views: 2232
BACKGROUND. Sporadic vascular malformations (VMs) are complex congenital anomalies of blood vessels that lead to stroke, life-threatening bleeds, disfigurement, overgrowth, and/or pain. Therapeutic options are severely limited, and multidisciplinary management remains challenging, particularly for high-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVM). METHODS. To investigate the pathogenesis of sporadic intracranial and extracranial VMs in 160 children in which known genetic causes had been excluded, we sequenced DNA from affected tissue and optimized analysis for detection of low mutant allele frequency. RESULTS. We discovered multiple mosaic-activating variants in 4 genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1, a pathway commonly activated in cancer and responsible for the germline RAS-opathies. These variants were more frequent in high-flow than low-flow VMs. In vitro characterization and 2 transgenic zebrafish AVM models that recapitulated the human phenotype validated the pathogenesis of the mutant alleles. Importantly, treatment of AVM-BRAF mutant zebrafish with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafinib restored blood flow in AVM. CONCLUSION. Our findings uncover a major cause of sporadic VMs of different clinical types and thereby offer the potential of personalized medical treatment by repurposing existing licensed cancer therapies. FUNDING. This work was funded or supported by grants from the AVM Butterfly Charity, the Wellcome Trust (UK), the Medical Research Council (UK), the UK National Institute for Health Research, the L’Oreal-Melanoma Research Alliance, the European Research Council, and the National Human Genome Research Institute (US).
Lara Al-Olabi, Satyamaanasa Polubothu, Katherine Dowsett, Katrina A. Andrews, Paulina Stadnik, Agnel P. Joseph, Rachel Knox, Alan Pittman, Graeme Clark, William Baird, Neil Bulstrode, Mary Glover, Kristiana Gordon, Darren Hargrave, Susan M. Huson, Thomas S. Jacques, Gregory James, Hannah Kondolf, Loshan Kangesu, Kim M. Keppler-Noreuil, Amjad Khan, Marjorie J. Lindhurst, Mark Lipson, Sahar Mansour, Justine O’Hara, Caroline Mahon, Anda Mosica, Celia Moss, Aditi Murthy, Juling Ong, Victoria E. Parker, Jean-Baptiste Rivière, Julie C. Sapp, Neil J. Sebire, Rahul Shah, Branavan Sivakumar, Anna Thomas, Alex Virasami, Regula Waelchli, Zhiqiang Zeng, Leslie G. Biesecker, Alex Barnacle, Maya Topf, Robert K. Semple, E. Elizabeth Patton, Veronica A. Kinsler
Total views: 2220
Polypeptide vaccines effectively activate human T cells but suffer from poor biological stability, which confines both transport logistics and in vivo therapeutic activity. Synthetic biology has the potential to address these limitations through the generation of highly stable antigenic “mimics” using subunits that do not exist in the natural world. We developed a platform based on D–amino acid combinatorial chemistry and used this platform to reverse engineer a fully artificial CD8+ T cell agonist that mirrored the immunogenicity profile of a native epitope blueprint from influenza virus. This nonnatural peptide was highly stable in human serum and gastric acid, reflecting an intrinsic resistance to physical and enzymatic degradation. In vitro, the synthetic agonist stimulated and expanded an archetypal repertoire of polyfunctional human influenza virus–specific CD8+ T cells. In vivo, specific responses were elicited in naive humanized mice by subcutaneous vaccination, conferring protection from subsequent lethal influenza challenge. Moreover, the synthetic agonist was immunogenic after oral administration. This proof-of-concept study highlights the power of synthetic biology to expand the horizons of vaccine design and therapeutic delivery.
John J. Miles, Mai Ping Tan, Garry Dolton, Emily S.J. Edwards, Sarah A.E. Galloway, Bruno Laugel, Mathew Clement, Julia Makinde, Kristin Ladell, Katherine K. Matthews, Thomas S. Watkins, Katie Tungatt, Yide Wong, Han Siean Lee, Richard J. Clark, Johanne M. Pentier, Meriem Attaf, Anya Lissina, Ann Ager, Awen Gallimore, Pierre J. Rizkallah, Stephanie Gras, Jamie Rossjohn, Scott R. Burrows, David K. Cole, David A. Price, Andrew K. Sewell
Total views: 2018
We have previously reported that the fractalkine (FKN)/CX3CR1 system represents a novel regulatory mechanism for insulin secretion and β cell function. Here, we demonstrate that chronic administration of a long-acting form of FKN, FKN-Fc, can exert durable effects to improve glucose tolerance with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and decreased β cell apoptosis in obese rodent models. Unexpectedly, chronic FKN-Fc administration also led to decreased α cell glucagon secretion. In islet cells, FKN inhibited ATP-sensitive potassium channel conductance by an ERK-dependent mechanism, which triggered β cell action potential (AP) firing and decreased α cell AP amplitude. This results in increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and decreased glucagon secretion. Beyond its islet effects, FKN-Fc also exerted peripheral effects to enhance hepatic insulin sensitivity due to inhibition of glucagon action. In hepatocytes, FKN treatment reduced glucagon-stimulated cAMP production and CREB phosphorylation in a pertussis toxin–sensitive manner. Together, these results raise the possibility of use of FKN-based therapy to improve type 2 diabetes by increasing both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.
Matthew Riopel, Jong Bae Seo, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Pingping Li, Joshua Wollam, Heekyung Chung, Seung-Ryoung Jung, Anne Murphy, Maria Wilson, Ron de Jong, Sanjay Patel, Deepika Balakrishna, James Bilakovics, Andrea Fanjul, Artur Plonowski, Duk-Su Koh, Christopher J. Larson, Jerrold M. Olefsky, Yun Sok Lee
Total views: 1997
Coupling is the process that links bone resorption to bone formation in a temporally and spatially coordinated manner within the remodeling cycle. Several lines of evidence point to the critical roles of osteoclast-derived coupling factors in the regulation of osteoblast performance. Here, we used a fractionated secretomic approach and identified the axon-guidance molecule SLIT3 as a clastokine that stimulated osteoblast migration and proliferation by activating β-catenin. SLIT3 also inhibited bone resorption by suppressing osteoclast differentiation in an autocrine manner. Mice deficient in Slit3 or its receptor, Robo1, exhibited osteopenic phenotypes due to a decrease in bone formation and increase in bone resorption. Mice lacking Slit3 specifically in osteoclasts had low bone mass, whereas mice with either neuron-specific Slit3 deletion or osteoblast-specific Slit3 deletion had normal bone mass, thereby indicating the importance of SLIT3 as a local determinant of bone metabolism. In postmenopausal women, higher circulating SLIT3 levels were associated with increased bone mass. Notably, injection of a truncated recombinant SLIT3 markedly rescued bone loss after an ovariectomy. Thus, these results indicate that SLIT3 plays an osteoprotective role by synchronously stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption, making it a potential therapeutic target for metabolic bone diseases.
Beom-Jun Kim, Young-Sun Lee, Sun-Young Lee, Wook-Young Baek, Young Jin Choi, Sung Ah Moon, Seung Hun Lee, Jung-Eun Kim, Eun-Ju Chang, Eun-Young Kim, Jin Yoon, Seung-Whan Kim, Sung Ho Ryu, Sun-Kyeong Lee, Joseph A. Lorenzo, Seong Hee Ahn, Hyeonmok Kim, Ki-Up Lee, Ghi Su Kim, Jung-Min Koh
Total views: 1959
Increased sugar consumption is increasingly considered to be a contributor to the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes and their associated cardiometabolic risks. As a result of its unique metabolic properties, the fructose component of sugar may be particularly harmful. Diets high in fructose can rapidly produce all of the key features of the metabolic syndrome. Here we review the biology of fructose metabolism as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose consumption may contribute to cardiometabolic disease.
Sarah A. Hannou, Danielle E. Haslam, Nicola M. McKeown, Mark A. Herman
Total views: 1186
Microglia are brain-resident myeloid cells that mediate key functions to support the CNS. Microglia express a wide range of receptors that act as molecular sensors, which recognize exogenous or endogenous CNS insults and initiate an immune response. In addition to their classical immune cell function, microglia act as guardians of the brain by promoting phagocytic clearance and providing trophic support to ensure tissue repair and maintain cerebral homeostasis. Conditions associated with loss of homeostasis or tissue changes induce several dynamic microglial processes, including changes of cellular morphology, surface phenotype, secretory mediators, and proliferative responses (referred to as an “activated state”). Activated microglia represent a common pathological feature of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Cumulative evidence suggests that microglial inflammatory activity in AD is increased while microglial-mediated clearance mechanisms are compromised. Microglia are perpetually engaged in a mutual interaction with the surrounding environment in CNS; thus, diverse microglial reactions at different disease stages may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention and modification of inflammatory activities. In this Review, the role of microglia in the pathogenesis of AD and the modulation of microglia activity as a therapeutic modality will be discussed.
Heela Sarlus, Michael T. Heneka
Total views: 751
Along with a general decline in overall health, most chronic degenerative human diseases are inherently associated with increasing age. Age-associated cognitive impairments and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, are potentially debilitating conditions that lack viable options for treatment, resulting in a tremendous economic and societal cost. Most high-profile clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases have led to inefficacious results, suggesting that novel approaches to treating these pathologies are needed. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated that senescent cells, which are characterized by sustained cell cycle arrest and production of a distinct senescence-associated secretory phenotype, accumulate with age and at sites of age-related diseases throughout the body, where they actively promote tissue deterioration. Cells with features of senescence have been detected in the context of brain aging and neurodegenerative disease, suggesting that they may also promote dysfunction. Here, we discuss the evidence implicating senescent cells in neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanistic contribution of these cells that may actively drive neurodegeneration, and how these cells or their effects may be targeted therapeutically.
Darren J. Baker, Ronald C. Petersen
Total views: 694
Recent discoveries of the glymphatic system and of meningeal lymphatic vessels have generated a lot of excitement, along with some degree of skepticism. Here, we summarize the state of the field and point out the gaps of knowledge that should be filled through further research. We discuss the glymphatic system as a system that allows CNS perfusion by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). We also describe the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels and their role in drainage of the brain ISF, CSF, CNS-derived molecules, and immune cells from the CNS and meninges to the peripheral (CNS-draining) lymph nodes. We speculate on the relationship between the two systems and their malfunction that may underlie some neurological diseases. Although much remains to be investigated, these new discoveries have changed our understanding of mechanisms underlying CNS immune privilege and CNS drainage. Future studies should explore the communications between the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics in CNS disorders and develop new therapeutic modalities targeting these systems.
Antoine Louveau, Benjamin A. Plog, Salli Antila, Kari Alitalo, Maiken Nedergaard, Jonathan Kipnis
Total views: 534
The fundamental pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is neuronal dysfunction leading to cognitive impairment. The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), derived from amyloid precursor protein, is one driver of AD, but how it leads to neuronal dysfunction is not established. In this Review, I discuss the complexity of AD and possible cause-and-effect relationships between Aβ and the vascular and hemostatic systems. AD can be considered a multifactorial syndrome with various contributing pathological mechanisms. Therefore, as is routinely done with cancer, it will be important to classify patients with respect to their disease signature so that specific pathologies, including vascular pathways, can be therapeutically targeted.
Total views: 454
There are currently over 1.9 billion people who are obese or overweight, leading to a rise in related health complications, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The finding that obesity and metabolic disorder are accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation has fundamentally changed our view of the underlying causes and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We now know that an inflammatory program is activated early in adipose expansion and during chronic obesity, permanently skewing the immune system to a proinflammatory phenotype, and we are beginning to delineate the reciprocal influence of obesity and inflammation. Reviews in this series examine the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system in obesity; inflammation within diabetic islets, brain, liver, gut, and muscle; the role of inflammation in fibrosis and angiogenesis; the factors that contribute to the initiation of inflammation; and therapeutic approaches to modulate inflammation in the context of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Alan R. Saltiel, Jerrold M. Olefsky
Total views: 397
A major subset of human cancers shows evidence for spontaneous adaptive immunity, which is reflected by the presence of infiltrating CD8+ T cells specific for tumor antigens within the tumor microenvironment. This observation has raised the question of which innate immune sensing pathway might detect the presence of cancer and lead to a natural adaptive antitumor immune response in the absence of exogenous infectious pathogens. Evidence for a critical functional role for type I IFNs led to interrogation of candidate innate immune sensing pathways that might be triggered by tumor presence and induce type I IFN production. Such analyses have revealed a major role for the stimulator of IFN genes pathway (STING pathway), which senses cytosolic tumor–derived DNA within the cytosol of tumor-infiltrating DCs. Activation of this pathway is correlated with IFN-β production and induction of antitumor T cells. Based on the biology of this natural immune response, pharmacologic agonists of the STING pathway are being developed to augment and optimize STING activation as a cancer therapy. Intratumoral administration of STING agonists results in remarkable therapeutic activity in mouse models, and STING agonists are being carried forward into phase I clinical testing.
Leticia Corrales, Sarah M. McWhirter, Thomas W. Dubensky Jr., Thomas F. Gajewski
Total views: 373
Fibroblasts synthesize the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and play an essential role in maintaining the structural integrity of most tissues. Researchers have long suspected that fibroblasts exhibit functional specialization according to their organ of origin, body site, and spatial location. In recent years, a number of approaches have revealed the existence of fibroblast subtypes in mice. Here, we discuss fibroblast heterogeneity with a focus on the mammalian dermis, which has proven an accessible and tractable system for the dissection of these relationships. We begin by considering differences in fibroblast identity according to anatomical site of origin. Subsequently, we discuss new results relating to the existence of multiple fibroblast subtypes within the mouse dermis. We consider the developmental origin of fibroblasts and how this influences heterogeneity and lineage restriction. We discuss the mechanisms by which fibroblast heterogeneity arises, including intrinsic specification by transcriptional regulatory networks and epigenetic factors in combination with extrinsic effects of the spatial context within tissue. Finally, we discuss how fibroblast heterogeneity may provide insights into pathological states including wound healing, fibrotic diseases, and aging. Our evolving understanding suggests that ex vivo expansion or in vivo inhibition of specific fibroblast subtypes may have important therapeutic applications.
Magnus D. Lynch, Fiona M. Watt
Total views: 365
Radiotherapy is an effective treatment strategy for cancer, but a significant proportion of patients experience radiation-induced toxicity due to damage to normal tissue in the irradiation field. The use of chemical or biological approaches aimed at reducing or preventing normal tissue toxicity induced by radiotherapy is a long-held goal. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) regulate the production of factors that may protect several cellular compartments affected by radiation-induced toxicity. Pharmacological inhibitors of prolyl hydroxylase domain–containing enzymes (PHDs), which result in stabilization of HIFs, have recently been proposed as a new class of radioprotectors. In this review, radiation-induced toxicity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the main cellular compartments studied in this context will be discussed. The effects of PHD inhibition on GI radioprotection will be described in detail.
Monica M. Olcina, Amato J. Giaccia
Total views: 301
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is dynamically tuned to optimize physiological function. Its major properties, including composition and mechanics, profoundly influence cell biology. Cell-ECM interactions operate through an integrated set of sensor and effector circuits that use several classes of receptors and signal transduction pathways. At the single-cell level, the ECM governs differentiation, metabolism, motility, orientation, proliferation, and survival. At the cell population level, the ECM provides higher-order guidance that is essential for physiological function. When pathological changes in the ECM lead to impairment of organ function, we use the term “fibrosis.” In this Review, we differentiate fibrosis initiation from progression and focus primarily on progressive lung fibrosis impairing organ function. We present a working model to explain how the altered ECM is not only a consequence but also a driver of fibrosis. Additionally, we advance the concept that fibrosis progression occurs in a fibrogenic niche that is composed of a fibrogenic ECM that nurtures fibrogenic mesenchymal progenitor cells and their fibrogenic progeny.
Jeremy Herrera, Craig A. Henke, Peter B. Bitterman
Total views: 299